Does the universe have extra dimensions?Why do scientists want to prove multidimensional space?
In Einstein’s theory of relativity, the universe is a four-dimensional space-time consisting of three dimensions of space and one dimension of time.However, with the development of physical theory, more and more scientists believe that there may be extra dimensions in the universe. The proposal of extra dimensions has given a new direction to physical theory, and many advanced physical theories have begun to use extra dimensions to complete the relevant theoretical basis.If the existence of multi-dimensional space can be proved, many theories can be further developed. In three-dimensional space, material structure is limited to three dimensions. If there are four-dimensional space or even higher dimensions, material structure and form can be more abundant.Multidimensional space can provide more possibilities: if we live in two-dimensional space, the whole world has only length and width, and the structure of matter is very simple. We can draw the possible structure in two-dimensional space on a blank sheet of paper.But when two dimensions expand into three, the structure of space becomes suddenly much more complex.Consider the Platonic solid. In three dimensions we can see tetrahedrons, octahedrons, cubes, dodecahedrons, icosahedrons.Each of these three dimensional blocks consists of a polygon.Three-dimensional space has only one more dimension than two-dimensional space, but the structure of space is much more complex, and the motion of objects can obtain additional directions.Using the extra dimensions, physicists can find many advanced theories that are hard to prove, but can form a relatively unified theory of physics that unites the four fundamental forces of the universe.One of the most advanced theories is string theory, which requires extra dimensions because string theory is based on the assumption that all particles are made up of vibrating strings.But now scientists have found that the number of particles is very much, only in three-dimensional space, string is difficult to through the particle vibration producing enough, so the string theory is that there are at least ten spatial dimensions, the universe and string can be in ten dimension vibration, thus produce enough rich micro particles, which we are familiar with the universe.Do extra dimensions really exist in the universe?Because human cognition is limited to three dimensions, we know a lot about one, two, and three dimensions, but nothing about four.It is not realistic to imagine four-dimensional space out of thin air. Scientists speculate about four-dimensional space mainly through scientific phenomena in one, two and three dimensions.The four-dimensional space model we often see — hypercube is the four-dimensional space model deduced through the connection between two dimensional space and three dimensional space.The cube in the middle of the hypercube is not a small cube, but a cube of the same size as the outer cube.Because of the fourth dimension, the cube has the perspective effect of being bigger and smaller, so the cube inside the model is smaller.Two-dimensional planes are copied and connected to form three-dimensional volumes.The main idea of hypercubes is to copy and connect three-dimensional blocks, perhaps four-dimensional blocks.However, the line formed by the block connection is not the dimension of the three-dimensional space, but the fourth dimension, so we cannot observe the four-dimensional space block, only the projection of the four-dimensional block, and this projection is the hypercube.The hypercube is not two cubes, but eight cubes.If you want to take a square in two dimensions, and make it into a cube, you have to squeeze the square up and put it together, and where you squeeze the square in two dimensions, that’s the third dimension.If you take a two-dimensional plane and replace it with a three-dimensional volume, you squeeze it together in a similar way.The cube is then squeezed, forming a four-dimensional volume.Because our spatial perception and observation ability are limited in three-dimensional space, we cannot observe the four-dimensional block formed by extrusion of three-dimensional block, but can only observe the projection of four-dimensional block through hypercube.Can not observe the four-dimensional space, does it mean that there is no extra dimension: for the four-dimensional space, scientists have built a lot of relevant models, but objects in the four-dimensional space have never appeared in our life, a space dimension that can not be observed and appear, is it really possible to exist?If we live in a three-dimensional universe with no fourth dimension, then all physics with extra dimensions is nonsense, so extra dimensions beyond the three dimensions have to be around us.To find extra dimensions, scientists conducted a special experiment — looking for evidence of interactions between different dimensions.In short, it proves that speaking in two dimensions can be heard in three.Scientists use gravity as an experimental subject, but the results show that all the gravitational pull of a three-dimensional object, acting in three dimensions, conforms to the conservation of kinetic energy, and no extra force is lost.This suggests that the dimensions do not interact with each other, or that the effects are too limited to be detected with the precision of human equipment.Therefore, it can also be concluded that even if we discover the four-dimensional space, we can not interfere in the four-dimensional space too much, and these extra dimensions may only have a great influence in the micro world.Conclusion: The proposal of extra dimensions has led many scientists to discover a new direction of physical theory, but there is no evidence to prove the existence of extra dimensions.Although the extra dimensions have yet to be confirmed, but for physicists, the possibility of extra dimensions can provide more, thus realize the advanced development of physical theory, rapid formation of more advanced theory, even can take advantage of the extra dimensions found in theory of “unified theory”, so many scientists are trying to demonstrate that the extra dimensions,To lay the foundations for advanced physics.